What are concurrent powers?
Powers shared by state and federal govt.
What is the supremacy clause?
The constitution and all treaties are the supreme law of the land.
What does the 10th amendment say?
Powers not delegated to federal govt are reserved for the states.
What is the relationship between state and local govts?
Hierarchal, because the state can create or destroy local govts.
What is political culture?
Attitudes and perceptions citizens have towards govt, about what govt should do, types of people who are in govt, and how govt is practiced in a state.
What is political culture derived from?
What are the three types of political culture?
Individualistic, Traditionalistic, Moralistic
What are the characteristics of Individualistic culture?
Very limited govt, emphasis on private citizens and economic independence.
What are the characteristics of Moralistic culture?
Govts job is to achieve common good, politics should involve everyone, expend the govt for public good.
What are the characteristics of Traditionalistic culture?
Govt should be made of elites, emphasis on tradition and social hierarchy.
What kind of political culture is Texas?
Individualistic and Traditionalistic
What state has the youngest constitution?
What state has the oldest constitution?
What state has rewritten its constitution 11 times?
What state has longest constitution?
Alabama with 176,000 words and 766 amendments
What is the average length of a state constitution?
Texas has how long of a constitution?
What does the Texas constitution consist more of then the US constitution?
Individual rights and policy issues.
How would one describe the Texas constitution?
A very long and detailed document.
How many times has Texas amended the constitution?
Which is harder to amend? US constitution or Texas constitution?
Which state is the only state that doesn't require the amendment to be ratified by the people?
How many states allow voters to amend constitutions by ballot initiative?
Which two states allow commission referrals?
Florida and New Mexico
What are two other ways to amend constitutions?
Constitutional conventions and judicial action
What are the steps to amend texas constitution?
1. propose legislature in regular or special session
2. Approval by 2/3 majority in each chamber (House and Senate)
3. Announced twice in newspaper
4. Approval by majority voters
What was Marylands argument in McCulloch v Maryland?
To check the power of the federal govt it taxed the bank made by the federal govt
Why did SCOTUS side with McCulloch?
Maryland couldn't tax the bank because of the necessary and proper clause (Congress had implied powers). Taxing is a form of destroying and the state govt couldn't destroy the federal govt.
What is the necessary and proper clause?
Congress has the power to make laws and do other things to enforce their enumerated powers.
What are the three types of govt systems?
Unitary, Confederal, Federal
What are the characteristics of a unitary system?
clear hierarchal relationship between central and federal govt, central can create or destroy regional govt.
What is the most common kind of govt system?
What are the characteristics of a confederal system?
Regional govt has most power, central govt only has power delegated by the regional govt
What are the characteristics of a federal system?
Power is shared between regional and central govt. Both have dual sovereignty and have the advantages of unitary and confederal.
How are states rights protected?
1.Senators chosen by state legislatures until 17th amendment was passed
3. power to tax, militia, regulate state commerce
What are categorical grants used for?
To encourage states and localities to pursue national goals
What is Creative Federalism and when was it used?
1960's to the 70's under LBJ where the Fed worked with states and localities and sometimes bypassed stated to work with localities.
What is New Federalism and when was it used?
80's to 2000's where the presidents attempted to return power to the states with block grants.
What is coercive federalism?
Federal regulations and mandates that force states to change policies to meet national goals.
what are unfunded mandates?
Federal laws that require states or localities to pay for cost of a certain federal policy.
What is Federal Preemption?
National govt imposes priorities and prevents states from acting in a certain way using the supremacy clause.
What is the commerce clause?
Congress can regulate commerce with other nations and among states.
What was the significance of Gibbons V Ogden?
It gave more power to the federal govt in regulating interstate commerce.
What was Wickard v Filburn about?
Filbert made more wheat than he was supposed to and was sued for it. Another issue about interstate commerce.
What was the result and significance of Wickard v Filburn?
SCOTUS ruled in favor of Wickard, because filbert didn't buy from someone else which affected commerce.
What was US v Lopez about?
Lopez brought a gun to school, interstate commerce was used as the reason to sue.
What was the result of of US v Lopez?
SCOTUS ruled in favor of Lopez, interstate commerce was ruled as a non relevant reason. Gun Free school act exceeded authority.
What is the effect of Cooperative Federalism?
Not much except to enhance and support the current political culture.
What is sectionalism?
Permanent ties states have with other states through migration
What is continuing frontier?
Constant effort by Americans to to extend control over their environment.
What are the two sections of political ordered what are their characteristics?
1. Marketplace (Power and individualistic)- bargains and self interest
2. Commonwealth ( Justice and Moralistic)- undivided interest and moral principles