American Republic Chapter 12

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1.) What was the idea of Manifest Destiny?

The belief that Americans were supposed to have all the western land to the Pacific Ocean

2.) What were the 5 main reasons Americans began to move to the west?

Mood of the Day-saw others leaving, Lure of the Land-new soil, gold, Desire for Wealth- gold/silver, land to buy and sell, Adventure/New Start-challenges with the new land, hostile Indians, and Gospel/Religious Freedom-spread the gospel to Indians + other people living there.

3.) What religious group was forced west due to persecution?

The Mormons

4.) Who developed its system of beliefs?

Joseph Smith

5.) Who led the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake?

Brigham Young

6.) Which trail to the West was used for troops/supplies during the Mexican War?

Santa Fe Trail

7.) What man rediscovered the Oregon Trail in 1824?

Jedidiah Smith

8.) Who were the first to seek permanent homes in Oregon?

Methodist Missionaries

9.) Who were the main travelers on the California Trail?

Argonauts- "gold seekers", forty-niners

10.) Who brought 300 families to Texas after his father died?

Stephen Austin

11.) Who was the Mexican dictator who forced the Texans to fight for their independence?

Santa Anna

12.) What battle ended in total defeat for the American, but became a rallying cry?

The Alamo

13.) Who were the two American Commanders who died at the Alamo?

William Travis and Davy Crockett

14.) Who led the Americans to victory at the Battle of San Jacinto?

Sam Houston

15.) Describe the Battle of San Jacinto.

Only lasted 20 minutes, almost entire Mexican army was killed/captured, Santa Anna held hostage, April 1836

16.) For how many years was Texas an independent republic?


17.) Who was the first president of Texas?

Sam Houston

18.) What president promised to annex Oregon and Texas?

James K.Polk

19.) What men were known by the following nicknames?

"Old Rough and Ready"-Zachary Taylor, "Old Fuss and Feathers"-Winfield Scott, "The Pathfinder"-John Charles Fremont

20.) How much did the US pay Mexico for California and New Mexico?

$15 Million

21.) Name some of the challenges along the CA Trail.

The Rockies, loose, desert sand, days of drinking only water from barrels in wagons, 40-mile desert, Sierra Nevada Mountains

22.) What became the US-Mexican boundary after the Mexican War?

The Rio Grande River

23.) What dispute initiated the Mexican War?

The US thought the Rio Grande was the boundary, Mexico thought Neuces

24.) Who took Santa Fe without firing a shot?

Colonel Stephen Kearny

25.) How much did the US pay for the Gadsden Purchase?

$10 Million

26.) What line was chosen as the US-Canadian boundary in the Oregon Territory?

the 49th Parallel

27.) Where in California was gold discovered in 1848?

Sutter's Mill, near Sutter's Fort

28.) Who were the Forty-Niners?

The 80,000 men who came in 1849 to mine for gold

29.) Who proposed the Compromise of 1850?

Henry Clay

30.) What were the provisions of the Compromise of 1850?

CA would be admitted as a free state, the rest of the Mexican Cession would be divided into the Utah and New Mexico Territories, these territories would decide via popular sovereignty whether slavery would be admitted, fugitive slave law as enacted-ordered to bring runaway slaves back, and it outlawed the slave trade in DC, and finally, Congress would pay Texas for giving up some of its land.

31.) What was the idea of popular sovereignty?

The people would choose in the territories whether slavery was allowed or not.

32.) Who was elected President in 1848?

Zachary Taylor

33.) Who became president after Taylor died?

Millard Fillmore

34.) Who was the leader of the Doughfaces ( Northern Democrats who did not oppose slavery)?

Stephen Douglas

35.) Discuss Jedidiah Smith.

Jedidiah Smith was the first white man to travel to CA by land, located South Pass, strong Christian, one of the greatest leaders of the time.

36.) How did Texas change from being a part of Mexico to becoming a state in the US? Give at least 3 parts of the process.

Americans in Texas weren't becoming Mexicans, so Santa Anna closed borders, Texas rebelled and won, wanted to be annexed into America but America was threatened with war, America won a war and annexed Texas.

37.) What was the Wilmot Proviso?

Proposed by David Wilmot, it suggested Congress ban slavery in any territory gained in the war, was rejected.

38.) Explain the beginnings of the California Gold Rush.

Sutter secured 50,000 acres from Spanish. Sutter wanted to deepen the river for his mill, so he hired James W Marshall. Marshall found gold dust in water, tested, found out it was gold. Marshall told Sutter, who also tested. They hid it for a short amount of time until one employee tried to pay a bill with gold dust. The California Gold Rush was on.