SDS_1.3Carbohydrate

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SB015_1.3CARBOHYDRATE

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Carbohydrate is composed of ______, ________ & ______ atoms

Carbohydrate is composed of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen atoms

State 3 classes of carbohydrate with its example

Class - example
Monosaccharides -
Glucose, Galactose, Fructose
Disaccharides -
Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose
Polysaccharides -
Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose

Monosaccharide is the ________ ____ of sugar

Monosaccharides is the simplest form of sugar

Monosaccharide is the _______ for carbohydrates

Monosaccharides (1 sugar unit) is the monomer for carbohydrates

A disaccharide is
formed from 2 _______________
linked by __________ bond through
____________ process

A disaccharide is
formed from 2 monosaccharides
(two sugar units)
linked by glycosidic bond through
condensation process

Polysaccharides are polymer
formed from many _______________
linked by __________ ____
through ____________ process

Polysaccharides are polymer
formed from many monosaccharides
(many sugar units)
linked by glycosidic bond
through condensation process

Glucose (C6H12O6)

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alpha glucose

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beta glucose

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What is the structural difference between alpha glucose and beta glucose?

They differ in the orientation of the hydroxyl group ( –OH ) at carbon 1

What is condensation?

CONDENSATION
A chemical reaction in which 2 molecules are covalently bonded by removal of water molecule. to form polymer

What is hydrolysis?

HYDROLYSIS
A chemical process in which a compound is broken down by addition of water. to form monomer

Describe condensation

When a bond forms between monomers, each monomer contributes part of water molecule that is released.

Illustrate alpha glucose (Monosaccharide)

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Illustrate maltose (Disaccharide)

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Illustrate formation of maltose

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Illustrate breakdown of maltose

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What is maltose?

Maltose is a disaccharide formed when two units of α-glucose joined with an
α-1,4- glycosidic bond.

What is cellulose?

Cellulose is a polysaccharide (polymer) made up of long chain of β-glucose (monomer) joined with
β-1,4- glycosidic bond.

Illustrate beta glucose (Monosaccharide)

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Starch is a ______________ formed from monomer _____ glucose

Starch is a polysaccharide (polymer) formed from monomer alpha glucose

Cellulose (Polysaccharides)

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The ________ bond between the β-glucose chains gives cellulose its mechanical strength and chemical stability

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What is the function of cellulose?

Major component of cell walls which provide structural support to plant cell

Starch is made up of _______ (unbranched chain) and ___________ (branched chain)

Starch is made up of amylose (unbranched chain) and amylopectin (branched chain)

Amylose is an unbranched chain because it does not have _ __ _________ bond

Amylose is an unbranched chain because it does not have α-1,6- glycosidic bond.

Amylopectin is a branched chain because it does have _ __ _________ bond

Amylopectin is a branched chain because it does have α-1,6- glycosidic bond.

What is amylose?

Amylose is a polysaccharide (polymer) made up of long chain of α-glucose (monomer) joined with
α-1,4- glycosidic bond.

Amylose in Starch (Polysaccharides)

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What is amylopectin?

Amylopectin is a polysaccharide (polymer) made up of long chain of α-glucose (monomer) joined with
α-1,4- glycosidic bond and α-1,6- glycosidic bond.

What is glycogen

Glycogen is a polysaccharide (polymer) made up of long chain of α-glucose (monomer) joined with
α-1,4- glycosidic bond and α-1,6- glycosidic bond.

How is glycogen similar to amylopectin?

- Both have alpha glucose as monomer
- Both have its monomers linked together by α-1,4 glycosidic bond and α-1,6 glycosidic bond
- Both structure are formed by condensation

How is glycogen different from amylopectin?

Glycogen is
-highly branched
-more water soluble
-energy storage in animal cell

If in plant cell - its amylopectin
If in animal cell - its glycogen

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What is the function of starch (in plant) and glycogen (in animal)?

Energy storage because the are compact and easily hydrolyzed

Glycosidic bond is a type of ________ bond that joins a ____________ (sugar) molecule to another, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.

Glycosidic bond is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.

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