2018-2019 World History Final

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# Right & # Wrong of #

government in which only a few people rule

oligarchy

led thousands of slaves in an uprising and demanded freedom

Spartacus

leader who held power through force

tyrant

political unit consisting of a city and its surrounding countryside

city-state

ruler who held all the power

dictator

type of government in which people rule

democracy

warriors who fought on horseback

knights

was the last major war of the Reformation

Thirty Years War

people who try to convert others to a particular religion

missionaries

arguments against indulgences and church abuses; posted by Martin Luther

Ninety-Five Theses

system of promises that governed the relationship between lords and vassals

feudalism

a release from punishment for sins, in return for payment

indulgences

the shape and elevation of land in a region

topography

another name for the Middle Ages

medieval

how the Catholic Church responded to the Reformation

Counter Reformation

religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities

monks

there is nothing people can do to change their destiny

predestination

workers who were tied to the land on which they lived

serfs

code of honorable behavior for knights

chivalry

group of people who dedicated their lives to religion and follow common rules

religious order

cast out from the church

exommunicate

people who belonged to religious order but lived an worked among the general public

friars

considered to be a Renaissance master and is most well-known for his painting of the Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo

was an Italian author and politician

Machiavelli

leader of the Muslim Turks during the Crusades

Saladin

the law-making body that governs England today

Parliament

ruled Florence; he wanted Florence to be the most beautiful city in the world

Cosimo de'Medici

expert painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, engineer, town planner, and mapmaker; fascinated by nature and technology

Leonardo da Vinci

head of the Christian Church in western Europe

pope

an organization of priests that looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of secretly practicing their old religion

Spanish Inquisition

church official

clergy

religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings

heresy

large churches in which bishops led religious services

cathedrals

a long series of wars between Christians and Muslims

Crusades

a long conflict between England and France

Hundred Years' War

deadly plague that swept through Europe

Black Death

journeys to religious locations

pilgrimages

document listing rights that the king could not ignore

Magna Carta

law that governed how the world works

natural law

was a brilliant warrior and strong king

Charlemagne

is a punishment of a group because of its beliefs

persecution

group of people who hold the same religious belief

denomination

declared himself king of England; won the Battle of Hastings

William the Conqueror

legal system based on a written code of laws

civil law

painting done on plaster

frescoes

was one of the most important figures in the spread of Christianity after Jesus' death

Paul of Tarsus

capital of the Eastern Roman Empire

Constantinople

What empire would eventually come to conquest much of Alexander the Great's Persian Empire?

Roman

The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople, bringing an end to the _____________.

Eastern Roman Empire

The ______ became Christian and created on the strongest kingdoms in Europe.

Franks

Romance languages originated from this language.

Latin

A noble who gave land to a knight was called a _____.

Lord

Christianity and religious themes in art and literature are aspects of ______.

feudal Europe

Historians call the society that developed in the Eastern Roman Empire the ____________.

Byzantine Empire

At the end of the Roman Empire, eastern and western Europe were divided by _____________.

religion

What was the cause of the Magna Carta?

nobles decided to force the king to respect their rights.

Name the two new religious orders and their creators.

Dominicans - Dominic de Guzman
Franciscans - Francis of Assisi

What was the cause of the Hundred Years' War?

The kind of France died with no heirs to the throne; two men claimed his throne, one French, the other the king of England

English and French kings ___________ the throne. While Holy Roman emperors were ___________.

inherited; elected

What group(s) of people were sought out during the Spanish Inquisition?

Heretics, Muslims, Jews

____________ is a way of thinking and learning that stresses the importance of human abilities and actions.

humanism

Love of art and education was a key feature during the _____________; period that followed Europe's Middle Ages and means "rebirth"

Renaissance

The __________ explored human activities rather than the physical world or the nature of God.

humanities

A knight who promised to support the noble in battle or in other matters in exchange for the land was called a __________.

vassal

Who was the most powerful force that helped spread Christianity?

the pope

____________ was a German priest who disagreed with many Catholic beliefs, and was especially outraged by the selling of indulgences. He ended up founding his own church, the ___________.

Martin Luther; Lutheran Church

This man rewarded his knights by giving them large estates of land. This act was the beginning of feudalism in England.

William the Conqueror

A serf had to live by what rules?

Were not allowed to leave their land without the lord's permission and they spent much of their time working in their lord's fields

What would happen if a lord failed to follow through with his responsibilities?

His vassals could break all ties with him.

Christian efforts to retake Spain from the Moors.

Reconquista

___________ was born in the city of Athens.

Democracy

Tribunes

made up of elected officials who had the ability to veto

This method was put in place to keep any one part of the government from becoming stronger or more influential than the other.

Checks and balances

Romans created a ____________, where people elect leaders to govern them.

republic

Series of wars that are considered to be the fiercest that Rome fought in.

Punic Wars

What was the effect of Magna Carta?

The king was required to honor certain rights.

____________ is called the Holy Land because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached, and died.

Jerusalem

List the results of the Crusades.

Improvements to ships and maps
Feudalism declines
Turks still rule the Holy Land
Europeans want to travel/explore
Trade increased between Europe and Asia

List the three things Ferdinand and Isabella did together while ruling as king and queen of Spain.

Ended the Reconquista
Required all Spanish Jews to convert to Christianity or leave the country
Banned the practice of Islam

During the Renaissance, appreciation developed for the importance of ____________________.

people as individuals

List the four topics that are considered the humanities.

poetry
history
art
Greek and Latin languages

Name the Romance languages

Italian
Spanish
Portuguese
French
Romanian

What was the cause of the spread of Christianity during the Middle Ages?

efforts of monks and missionaries

Where do we see the influence of Greek mythology in our society?

sports teams
business logos
movies
books
language

4 issues that led to a split in the Church

The breaking of vows
Buying indulgences
Conflict with Rulers
Two or more popes

5 things church leaders worked to achieve during the Counter Reformation

Correct abuses
Clarify and defend Catholic teachings
Condemn Protestant errors and ban books written by Protestants
Win back areas of Europe that had been lost by using missionaries to spread Catholicism through the world
Met at the Council of Trent

What happened at the Council of Trent?

determined that faith, good works, and the sacraments were all necessary for salvation. The Latin Bible was still the only official bible.

What was the result of the Treaty of Westphalia?

European rulers could decide for themselves whether their countries would be Catholic or Protestant, and much of northern Europe became Protestant.

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