government in which only a few people rule
led thousands of slaves in an uprising and demanded freedom
leader who held power through force
political unit consisting of a city and its surrounding countryside
ruler who held all the power
type of government in which people rule
warriors who fought on horseback
was the last major war of the Reformation
Thirty Years War
people who try to convert others to a particular religion
arguments against indulgences and church abuses; posted by Martin Luther
system of promises that governed the relationship between lords and vassals
a release from punishment for sins, in return for payment
the shape and elevation of land in a region
another name for the Middle Ages
how the Catholic Church responded to the Reformation
religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities
there is nothing people can do to change their destiny
workers who were tied to the land on which they lived
code of honorable behavior for knights
group of people who dedicated their lives to religion and follow common rules
cast out from the church
people who belonged to religious order but lived an worked among the general public
considered to be a Renaissance master and is most well-known for his painting of the Sistine Chapel
was an Italian author and politician
leader of the Muslim Turks during the Crusades
the law-making body that governs England today
ruled Florence; he wanted Florence to be the most beautiful city in the world
expert painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, engineer, town planner, and mapmaker; fascinated by nature and technology
Leonardo da Vinci
head of the Christian Church in western Europe
an organization of priests that looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of secretly practicing their old religion
religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings
large churches in which bishops led religious services
a long series of wars between Christians and Muslims
a long conflict between England and France
Hundred Years' War
deadly plague that swept through Europe
journeys to religious locations
document listing rights that the king could not ignore
law that governed how the world works
was a brilliant warrior and strong king
is a punishment of a group because of its beliefs
group of people who hold the same religious belief
declared himself king of England; won the Battle of Hastings
William the Conqueror
legal system based on a written code of laws
painting done on plaster
was one of the most important figures in the spread of Christianity after Jesus' death
Paul of Tarsus
capital of the Eastern Roman Empire
What empire would eventually come to conquest much of Alexander the Great's Persian Empire?
The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople, bringing an end to the _____________.
Eastern Roman Empire
The ______ became Christian and created on the strongest kingdoms in Europe.
Romance languages originated from this language.
A noble who gave land to a knight was called a _____.
Christianity and religious themes in art and literature are aspects of ______.
Historians call the society that developed in the Eastern Roman Empire the ____________.
At the end of the Roman Empire, eastern and western Europe were divided by _____________.
What was the cause of the Magna Carta?
nobles decided to force the king to respect their rights.
Name the two new religious orders and their creators.
Dominicans - Dominic de Guzman
Franciscans - Francis of Assisi
What was the cause of the Hundred Years' War?
The kind of France died with no heirs to the throne; two men claimed his throne, one French, the other the king of England
English and French kings ___________ the throne. While Holy Roman emperors were ___________.
What group(s) of people were sought out during the Spanish Inquisition?
Heretics, Muslims, Jews
____________ is a way of thinking and learning that stresses the importance of human abilities and actions.
Love of art and education was a key feature during the _____________; period that followed Europe's Middle Ages and means "rebirth"
The __________ explored human activities rather than the physical world or the nature of God.
A knight who promised to support the noble in battle or in other matters in exchange for the land was called a __________.
Who was the most powerful force that helped spread Christianity?
____________ was a German priest who disagreed with many Catholic beliefs, and was especially outraged by the selling of indulgences. He ended up founding his own church, the ___________.
Martin Luther; Lutheran Church
This man rewarded his knights by giving them large estates of land. This act was the beginning of feudalism in England.
William the Conqueror
A serf had to live by what rules?
Were not allowed to leave their land without the lord's permission and they spent much of their time working in their lord's fields
What would happen if a lord failed to follow through with his responsibilities?
His vassals could break all ties with him.
Christian efforts to retake Spain from the Moors.
___________ was born in the city of Athens.
made up of elected officials who had the ability to veto
This method was put in place to keep any one part of the government from becoming stronger or more influential than the other.
Checks and balances
Romans created a ____________, where people elect leaders to govern them.
Series of wars that are considered to be the fiercest that Rome fought in.
What was the effect of Magna Carta?
The king was required to honor certain rights.
____________ is called the Holy Land because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached, and died.
List the results of the Crusades.
Improvements to ships and maps
Turks still rule the Holy Land
Europeans want to travel/explore
Trade increased between Europe and Asia
List the three things Ferdinand and Isabella did together while ruling as king and queen of Spain.
Ended the Reconquista
Required all Spanish Jews to convert to Christianity or leave the country
Banned the practice of Islam
During the Renaissance, appreciation developed for the importance of ____________________.
people as individuals
List the four topics that are considered the humanities.
Greek and Latin languages
Name the Romance languages
What was the cause of the spread of Christianity during the Middle Ages?
efforts of monks and missionaries
Where do we see the influence of Greek mythology in our society?
4 issues that led to a split in the Church
The breaking of vows
Conflict with Rulers
Two or more popes
5 things church leaders worked to achieve during the Counter Reformation
Clarify and defend Catholic teachings
Condemn Protestant errors and ban books written by Protestants
Win back areas of Europe that had been lost by using missionaries to spread Catholicism through the world
Met at the Council of Trent
What happened at the Council of Trent?
determined that faith, good works, and the sacraments were all necessary for salvation. The Latin Bible was still the only official bible.
What was the result of the Treaty of Westphalia?
European rulers could decide for themselves whether their countries would be Catholic or Protestant, and much of northern Europe became Protestant.