Unit 2 US History

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This flashdeck contains all of the keywords from unit 2 we are studying in US History A.


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Populist Movement (Populism)

defined as an ideology, political philosophy, or a type of discourse. Generally, a common theme compares "the people" against "the elite", and urges systemic social and political reform.

Farmers Movement

the general name for a movement between 1867 and 1896. This movement was remarkable because it involved radical socio-economic propaganda from what was considered the most conservative class of American society. In this movement, there were three periods, popularly known as the Grange, Alliance, and Populist movements Populist Party The People's Party, also known as the "Populists", was a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement (United States, 19th Century). It was most important in 1892-96, then rapidly faded away.

Panic of 1893

a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893. Similar to the Panic of 1873, this panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing, which set off a series of bank failures. Compounding market overbuilding and the railroad bubble was a run on the gold supply.

Ocala Demands

In December 1890, the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, more commonly known as the Southern Farmers' Alliance, its affiliate the Colored Farmers' Alliance, and the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association met jointly in the Marion Opera House in Ocala, Florida where they adopted the Ocala Demands. The demands were a platform for economic and political reform and later were adopted by the People's Party

The Granger laws

a series of laws passed in Southern states of the United States after the American Civil War to regulate grain elevator, railroad freight rates and to address long- and short-haul discrimination. They were passed through political agitation both by merchants' associations and by so-called Granger parties, which were third parties formed most often by members of the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization for farmers commonly called the Grange. The Granger Laws were an issue in two important court cases in the late 19th century, Munn v. Illinois and Wabash v. Illinois.

political machine

A local political organization that controls a large number of personal votes and can therefore exert political influence.

political boss

In context of governance, this is the head of a political party in a given region or district.


the financial kickback provided to city bosses in exchange for political favors

Tammany Hall

a political machine in New York, run by machine boss William Tweed with assistance from George Washington Plunkitt

Ida Tarbell

A leading muckraker best known for her 1904 book exposing the corrupt practices of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil.

The Jungle

highly influential book by "muckraker" Upton Sinclair. The book depicted the poverty of factory workers and the unsanitary and corrupt practices of the meat-packing industry. The book incited a public outcry which led to governmental regulation of the industry including the creation of the Bureau of Chemistry, the forerunner to the Food and Drug Administration.

The Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906

United States federal law that provided the federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of poisonous patent medicines.

McClure's Magazine

A monthly magazine credited with starting muckraking journalism. The magazine published influential exposes of US businesses by Ida Tarbell, Ray Stannard Baker and other leading muckrakers.


The intermediate phase of social development between capitalism and full communism. This is a strategy whereby the state has control of all key resource-producing industries and manages most aspects of the economy, in contrast to laissez-faire capitalism.

American Federation of Labor

The AFL was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio in December 1886 by an alliance of craft unions, disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association.

Molly Maguires

A secret Irish-American organization, mostly consisting of Pennsylvania coal miners, that was accused of crimes and abused by Pinkerton agents.

National Labor Union

The first federation of American unions, established after the Civil War. The NLU paved the way for later federated Unions such as the Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor (AFL).

The Knights of Labor

(K of L) (officially "Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor") was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s.

Terence V. Powderly

head of the Knights of Labor, a union which attempted to organize all workers, skilled and unskilled, into one large union. Though the Knights of Labor numbered 600,000, their poor organization limited the power of Powderly.

Rock Springs Massacre

The riot, between Chinese immigrant miners and white immigrant miners, was the result of racial tensions and an ongoing labor dispute over the Union Pacific Coal Department's policy of paying Chinese miners lower wages than white miners. At least 28 Chinese miners were killed.


Nickname for the Industrial Workers of the World, a radical, militant labor union.

social justice

justice exercised within a society, particularly as it is exercised by and among the various social classes of that society. A socially just society is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, understands and values human rights, and recognizes the dignity of every human being.

Social Gospel

The Social Gospel movement is a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada. The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as excessive wealth, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.

Lord's Prayer

The prayer taught by Jesus Christ to his disciples in the Sermon on the Mount.

National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA)

formed on May 15, 1869 in New York City. The National Association was created in response to a split in the American Equal Rights Association over whether the woman's movement should support the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Its founders, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, opposed the Fifteenth Amendment unless it included the vote for women.

American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA)

formed in November 1869 in response to a split in the American Equal Rights Association over the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Its founders, who supported the Fifteenth Amendment, included Lucy Stone, and Henry Blackwell. The AWSA founders were staunch abolitionists, and strongly supported securing the right to vote for the Negro. They believed that the Fifteenth Amendment would be in danger of failing to pass in Congress if it included the vote for women.

Seneca Falls Convention of 1848

an early and influential women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, July 19–20, 1848.