Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies

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process by which DNA is changed into mRNA

What does mRNA stand for?

messenger RNA

Where does transcription occur?

in the nucleus


the process by which mRNA is changed into a protein

What path does the mRNA take in order for translation to occur?

mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches to a ribosome

What type of membrane makes up the nucleus?

a double bilipid layer

How is mRNA able to leave the nucleus?

through nuclear pores

nuclear pore

essentially is a tunnel through the double bilipid layer of the nuclear membrane

What is a nuclear pore made of?



all the fluid between the organelles in a cell


everything that is inside the cell

Proteins that are made with free ribosomes are able to be used where?

inside the cell

perinuclear space

space between the two bilipid layers of the nuclear membrane (the outer and inner nuclear membrane)

endoplasmic reticulum

an extension of the nuclear membrane where the production of proteins for use inside the cellular membrane or outside the cell begins

rough endoplasmic reticulum

region of the endoplasmic reticulum where ribosomes are attached

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

region of the endoplasmic reticulum where there are no ribosomes attached


something packaged inside of it's own mini membrane being transported inside of the cell

golgi apparatus/golgi body

place where vesicle proteins created at the endoplasmic reticulum can attach and release into to go through a maturation process to get ready to be embedded into the cell membrane or used outside of the cell

Describe the path translation takes when done at the endoplasmic reticulum.

mRNA leaves the nucleus, attaches to a ribosome at the rough E.R., translates into a protein that is released on the inside of the E.R., that protein travels to the smooth E.R., then it can be released as a vesicle to travel to the golgi body for maturation into a fully functioning protein, the protein then leaves the golgi body as a vesicle and can then transport to the cellar membrane where it can either be embedded there or released outside of the cell