HYSA Cells

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HYSA Student Vocab Bio A Cells

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Basic unit of structure and function in all living organisms; it is surrounded by a cell surface membrane and contains genetic material (DNA or RNA) and cytoplasm with organelles


Funtionally and structurally distinct part of a cell


Relatively large organelle found in eukaryotes but absent in prokaryotes; the nucleus contains the cell's DNA and therefore controls the activities of teh cell; it is surrounded by two membranes which together form the nuclear envelope


Robert Hooke looked at cork and saw cell walls; he named them cells


Cells with membrane bound nuclei and other membrane bound organelles can be multicellular organisms


Cells with no membrane bound organelles (means before nucleus)


Cell Surface Membrane is a very thin membrane that surrounds all cells; it is partialy permeable and controls the exchange of material between the cell and its environment


Genetic material in a relaxed state made up of DNA


Genetic material in the condensed state of tightly coiled chromatin


Small structure found inside the nucleus usually visible as a dark body; functions in the manufacture of ribosomes using its own DNA


All living material inside a cell (includes cytoplasm and nucleus)


The gelatinous matrix and all contents of a cell exclusing the nucleus


The solution in the cell that contains the proteins and chemicals needed for reactions to occur


(or mitochondrion) the organelle in eukaryotes in which aerobic respiration takes place

Cell Wall

Wall surrounding prokaryotes


Pore like structure found in plant cell walls; line up with neighboring cells to form a tube like communication pathway allowing. the controlled passage of material from one cell to another. The pores contain ER and are lined with the cell surface membrane


an organelle with a single membrane


Partially permeable membrane surrounding plant vacuoles


Organelle that is bound by a double membrane "envelope" in which photosynthesis takes place in eukaryotic plants


Production of organic substances from inorganic materials using energy from sunlight.


(granum) stacks of thylakoids; membranes inside a chlorplast


Finger like projections or extensions that increase the surface area of a cell used for more efficient absorption and secretion

Nuclear Envelope

Double membrane surrounding nucleus perforated with nuclear pores and connecting to the Endoplasmic Reticulum; allows passage of certain material (ie: RNA and proteins) in and out of the nucleus

Nuclear Pores

Found in the nuclear envelope the control the exchange of material (ie: mRNA) inside and outside the cell nucleus and cytoplasm.


Endoplasmic Reticulum is a network of flattened sacs in the cytoplasm of eukrayotic cells transporting molecules like proteins through the cell inside sacs separate from the cytoplasm; connects with the nuculear envelope

Smooth ER

Smooth ER (SER) makes lipids and steroids like cholesterol and reproductive hormeones (estrogen and testosterone); stores Calcium ions; and metabolizes drugs in the liver

Rough ER

Rough ER (RER) studded with ribosomes that makes proteins.


Small organelle abundant in prokaryotes and eukaryotes found free floating or bound to the RER in eukaryotes; function to make proteins


Golgi apparatus or golgi complex or golgi body; organelle in eukaryotic cells that looks like a stack of flattened pancakes forming at one end and breaking up in the other into vessicles for transport; packages


Single membrane transport container that brings nutrients to the appropriate parts in the cell or waste to the membrane for excretion


Single membrane sac that digests or uses hydrolytic enzymes to break down waste and and old organelles for secretion or recycling of components


Folds in the inner membrae of the mitochondrial envelope; the site of ATP synthesis and electron transport


Releasing contents from a cell through a vessicle that attaches and unfolds to the cytoplasm


Uptake of material from the environment into the invagination of the cell membrane creating vessicles; requires ATP


Uptake of liquid material requires ATP


Uptake of non-liquid or solid material requires ATP


Hair like extension of a eukaryotic cell membrane that beats for movement or passage of fluids in the extracelular environment for nutrition


Whip like tails in cells attached to the membrane which provide locomotion


Flattened membrane bound fluid filled sac which is the site of light dependent photosynthetic reactions in the chloroplast


Interior space of the thylakoid


Extra layer of cell wall found in some bacteria and some viruses; a slimey layer that helps offer resistance to dessication (drying out) and offer prtection from some antibiotics and white blood cells


small circular piece of DNA found in bacteria containing genes not from the organisms original DNA often containing resistance to antibiotics and other genes that offer a selective advantage


(pilus) fine protein rod used for attachment of surfaces or other cells (sex pilus used for conjugation or passing genetic plasmids between bacterium)


long rigid protein tubes aka tubulin; in eukaryotic cells to support cells and act as the spinkdle in which chromatids and chromosomes use for separation during cell division


Cylindrical structures made of microtubules found outside the nucleus in animal cells in a region called the centrosome; aslo found in the base of cilia and flagella


Organizing center of microtubules in animal cells


Found in plant cell walls; made up of carbohydrates


Found in bacterial cell walls;


Found in fungal cell walls


Non living infection particle needing a host cell to replicate; consisting of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat / capsid and an outer lipid envelope (sometimes)


lipid with phosphate which makes up the bilayer in the cell surface membrane.


Discovered that plant cells are the smallest unit of structure and function in animals; determined all living things composed of cells with Schwann


Discovered that animal cells are the smallest unit of structure and function in plants; determined all living things are composed of cells with Schleiden


Determined that cells come from pre-existing cells