The primary output of breaking down the WBS work packages
Unreliable; relies on historical information to predict what current activity durations should be. Known as top-down estimating.
bottom up estimating
Most accurate; starts at the bottom of the project and considers every activity and exact amount of resources needed to complete each activity.
WBS entry that considers time, cost, and scope for that deliverable within the WBS.
Predetermined range of acceptable variances, such as +/- 10% off schedule.
Schedule compression technique that adds more resources to activities on the critical path to complete the project earlier. This adds costs to the project.
Path in the network diagram that cannot be delayed or the project completion will be late. There can be more than 1 critical path. These activities have no float.
Preferred order or activities which enable activities to happen due to best practices or conditions unique to the project. Also called preferential or soft logic.
Earliest a project activity can finish; used in the forward pass procedure to discover critical path and project float.
Earliest a project can begin. Used in forward pass to discover the critical path and project float.
Schedule compression which allows activities to be done in parallel or with some overlap. Adds risk to the project.
finish to finish
Requires the current activity to be finished before its successor can finish.
finish to start
Requires the current activity to be finished before its successor can start.
Total time a single activity can be delayed without affecting the early start of its immediately following successor activities.
Activities must happen in a certain order (ex., foundation must be built before framing can begin. Also called mandatory dependency.
Positive time that moves 2 or more activities further apart.
Latest a project activity can finish; used in the backward pass procedure to discover critical path and project float.
Latest a project activity can begin; used in the backward pass procedure to discover critical path and project float.
Negative time that allows 2 or more activities to overlap where those activities would normally be sequential.
Monte Carlo analysis
Predicts how scenarios may work, given any number of variables. Creates a range of possible answers.
Uses mathematical formulas to predict how long an activity will take based on quantities of work to be completed.
Work expands to fill the time available for completion.
Shows activities in nodes and relationship between each activity.
Total time the project can be delayed without passing the completion date.
resource leveling heuristic
Flattens the schedule when resources are over-allocated.
rolling wave planning
Imminent work is planned in detail, while the work in teh future is planned at a high level.
Activities do not have to happen in a set order.
start to finish
Requires an activity to start so that its successor can finish.
start to start
Requires the current activity to start before its successor can start.
Project diagram that is often used for outsources portions of projects, repetitive work in a project, or a subproject.
Requires optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates to be created. Results in an average to predict how long the activity should take.
Total time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project completion.
Smallest item in the WBS.