Astronomy Ch. 4 and 5

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Wrong: #
# Right & # Wrong of #

In the Aurora Borealis
Green is _____
Red is _____

Green - oxygen
Red - nitrogen

Aristotle thought that…

-The earth was located at the center of the universe
- The heavens were perfect and the earth was imperfect

Plato thought that…

- the heavens were perfect
- the heavens were made up of a combination of circles turning at uniform rates (Uniform Circular Motion)
- Geocentric Universe


the earth is the center of the universe (it's not)

Ptolemy thought that…

- explained that the planets follow small circles around to orbit of the earth
- these circles were called "epicycles"


the circles that the planets follow while orbiting the earth (No.)


larger orbits around the earth (no.)

Copernicus thought that…

- developed a heliocentric universe (thank god)

Tycho Brahe thought that…

- stated that the earth was the immobile center of the universe around which the sun and the moon moved

Johannes Kepler thought that…

- stated that the orbits of the planets were ellipses
- stated the planets sweep over equal area in equal intervals of time


a closed curve around 2 points (foci) such that the total distance from one focus to the curve and back to the other focus remains constant

Orbital Period

the time it takes a planet to travel around the sun

Galileo thought that…

- stated that the moon was not perfect, was made of mountains and valleys
- Milky Way is made up of a myriad of stars
- Discovered Jupiter and its moons
- Discovered sun spots
- showed that the sun also rotated using these sun spots as evidence
- explained "retrograde motion"

Retrograde Motion

the apparent backwards motion of a planet as earth overtakes it

Issac Newton thought that…

- Three Major Laws
a. Law of Inertia
b. Law of Force
c. Every action has its own equal and opposite

Law of Inertia

An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force

Law of Force

the force on an object is equal to its mass times its acceleration

Newton's Third Law

for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Universal Law of Gravity

the force of gravity between two objects (their mass) is inverse to their distance squared

Orbital Motion

- Circular Velocity
- Escape Velocity

Circular Velocity

the velocity needed to remain in orbit around a large body

Escape Velocity

the velocity needed to leave a body

Geosynchronous Motion

how a satellite remains in a fixed position above the earth; (of an earth satellite or its orbit) having a period of rotation synchronous with that of the earth's rotation


- both a wave and a particle
- made up of electric and magnetic waves that can travel through space
- referred to as electromagnetic radiation
- based on both frequency and wavelength

Short Waves

strong radiation

Long Waves

weak radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation

a kind of radiation including visible light, radio waves, gamma rays, and X-rays, in which electric and magnetic fields vary simultaneously

The EM Scale

composed of (listed strongest to weakest) rays:
- gamma
- x-ray
- ultraviolet
- visible light
- infrared
- microwave
- radio (UHF, VHF, FM, AM)

Optical Telescopes

- Refracting
- Reflecting

Refracting Telescope

large lenses to gather and focus light

Reflecting Telescope

uses concave mirror to focus light

Three Major Aspects of Telescopes

- Light Gathering Power
- Resolving Power
- Magnifying Power

Light Gathering Power

the larger the lens of mirror, the larger the amount of light it can collect

Resolving Power

- the larger the telescope, the less light distortion, the higher the resolving power
- reveals fine detail

Magnifying Power

high magnification does not mean more detail


determined by taking the focal length and dividing it by the power of the eyepiece

Light Pollution

the brightening of the night sky by light scattered outdoors by artificial lighting

Types of Telescopes

- Radio Telescopes
- Infrared Telescopes
- Ultraviolet Telescopes

Radio Telescopes

for radio radiation

Infrared Telescopes

- for infrared radiation
- must be operated at a high altitude in excess of 13,500 feet to maximize the effect of water vapor in the atmosphere

Ultraviolet Telescopes

- for ultraviolet radiation
- must be in orbit to be effective