psyc study guide for midterm

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Right: #
Wrong: #
# Right & # Wrong of #

What is the mode for the following set of numbers?
a. 10
b, 3
c. 7
d. 5

d. 5
(it reoccurs the most)

What is the most important point about research conducted in psychological science?
a. psychological science discounts the importance of laboratory experiments and focuses more on descriptive research.
b. psychological science emphasizes the significance or re-creating exact behaviors of everyday life.
c. psychological science focuses less on particular behaviors than on seeking general principles that help explain many behaviors.
d. psychological science focuses on specific behavioral findings to determine the causes of human behavior.

c. psychological science focuses less on particular behaviors than on seeking general principles that help explain many behaviors.

The tendency for extreme scores to fall back the average score is called.
a. variable.
b. illusory correlation.
c. scatterplot.
d. regression toward the mean.

d. regression toward the mean

A(n) ___ is graphed cluster of dots in which each dot represents the values of two variables
a. illusory correlation
b. scatterplot
c. slope
d. variable

b. scatterplot

One major difference between correlational studies and experiments is that ___ reveal naturally occurring relationships. Whereas ___ manipulate factors to determine their effect.
a. illusory correlation; researchers
b. independent variables; dependent variables
c. correlational studies; experiments
d. experiments; correlational studies

c. correlational studies; experiments
(correlational they correspond so there is a relationship and experiments manipulate to get a result)

Perceiving a relationship where no relationships exists is called
a. the slope
b. illusory correlation
c. a variable
d. a scatterplot

b. illusory correlation
(it was an illusion. the correlation was never there)

Dr. Neo is conducting a research study on the effects of antisocial media exposure and antisocial behaviors among participants. What advice would you give him to help ensure that his findings are accurate and can be replicated?
a. "make sure you explain your hypotheses to participants in your study"
b. "make sure you include a large sample of participants in your study"
c. "make sure you befriend your participants"
d. "make sure you only include 15 participants in your study"

b. "make sure you include a large sample of participants in your study"

Dr. Lopez is examining factor that may be related to impact of parental stress on children. She is conducting
a. correlational research
b. replication research
c. confirmatory research
d. exploratory research

d. exploratory research

This variable is the experimental factor that is manipulated, and these manipulations may affect the outcome factor.
a. independent
b. control
c. dependent
d. double-blind

a. independent

One weakness of experimental research design is that
a. experiments are more difficult to replicate than other studies.
b. it may not be ethical to manipulate some variables.
c. this method cannot explore cause-effect relationships.
d. experiments cannot help us evaluate social programs.

b. it may not be ethical to manipulate some variables

___ is repeating the essence of a research study, usually with a different set of participants from different situations, to see whether the basic result can be reproduced.
a. Hindsight bias
b. overconfidence
c. naturalistic observation
d. replication

d. replication

Laboratory psychological research experiments let psychologists
a. re-create psychological forces under controlled conditions
b. re-create exact behaviors of everyday life
c. create experimental conditions that exactly stimulate real-life experiences
d. create specific findings that explain all human behavior

a. re-create psychological forces under controlled conditions

Professor miles is conducting a study on memory with a sample of college students. Before they agree to participate in the study professor miles tells them about the study and what they will do. This is an example of
a. confounding variables
b. debriefing
c. informed consent
d. variables

c. informed consent

In an experiment participants are often assigned to one of two groups. The ___ condition group refers to the group that receives the treatment. The ___ condition group refers to the group that does not receive the treatment
a. experimental; control
b. double-blind; independent
c. control; placebo
d. dependent; independent

a. experimental; control

The ___ is a research method in which neither the researchers nor the research participants know whether the participants are receiving a treatment or placebo
a. double-blind procedure
b. experimental procedure
c. dependent measure
d. independent measure

a. double-blind procedure

The ___ triggers ovaries and testes to release sex hormones.
a. pancreas
b. somatic nervous system
c. pituitary gland
d. thyroid gland

c. pituitary gland

Raul experiences tremors and loss of motor control related to Parkinson's disease, which is likely related to
a. too little dopamine
b. too much serotonin
c. too much GABA
d. too little ACh

a. too little dopamine

The action potential is BEST defined as:
a. a brief electrical impulse that transmits information along the axon of a neuron
b. the electrical charge produced by glial cells
c. the ability of a motor neuron to either contract or relax a muscle group
d. the amount of serotonin that can cross the axon's membrane

a. a brief electrical impulse that transmits information along the axon of a neuron.

A neuron recently fired it will not be able to fire again until after
a. depolarization
b. the resting potential has passed
c. the refractory period
d. activation

c. the refractory period

____ may have aided our ancestors by promoting social bonding
a. Ach
c. dopamine
d. oxytocin

d. oxytocin

The idea that various brain regions have particular responsibilities is called
a. biological psychology
b. localization of function
c. plasticity
d. neurotransmitters

b. localization function

The part of the neuron that caries messages to other cells in the body is the:
a. reticular formation
b. axon
c. dendrite
d. nucleus

b. axon

This technique produces computer generated images of soft tissue in the brain
a. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
b. electrocardiography (EKG)
c. electroencephalography (EEG)
d. positron emission tomography (PET)

a. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Which part of the neuron receives messages from other neurons
a. the nucleus
b. the dendrite
c. the axon
d. the sodium ion membrane

b. the dendrite

When James finally realizes that the noises he hears at night are simply the creaking of boards in an old house, his blood pressure decreases and his heartbeat slows. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his
a. central nervous system
b. parasympathetic nervous system
c. adrenal system
d. sympathetic nervous system

b. parasympathetic nervous system

___ was the first field of study to emphasize the localization of function
a. Phrenology
b. cognitive psychology
c. biological psychology
d. neuroscience

a. phrenology

These chemical messengers are mostly manufactured by the endocrine glands, and they can influence our in sex, food, and aggression
a. dopamine
b. sodium ion
d. hormones

d. hormones

The action potential is produced by the
a. opening and closing of the nodes in the myelin sheath
b. reuptake of the neurotransmitters into the vesicles
c. movement of positive ions across the membrane of the axon
d. movement of neurotransmitters across the ion channels

c. movement of positive ions across the membrane of the axon

The ___ work together to maintain homeostasis in the human body.
a. autonomic and central nervous systems
b. sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
c. central and peripheral nervous systems
d. somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems

b. sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

Each hemisphere's cortex is subdivided into four ___ and separated by ___
a. areas; lobes
b. lobes; fissures
c. cortices; folds
d. cortices; folds

b. lobes; fissures

Twenty four-year-old Alyssa recently graduated from college and has a job, but she is seeking a better employment situation. She is still living at home and is dependent on her family for insurance and most meals. Alysaa is in the stage of life known as;
a. emerging adulthood
b. adult stagnation
c. adult dependency
d. adolescence

a. emerging adulthood

The most immediate and direct function of the rooting reflex is to facilitate
a. object permanence
b. the formation of identity
c. food consumption
d. visual development

c. food consumption

When parents are consistently warm and responsive to their infant, the infant is likely to develop a(n) ___ attachment to the parents. When parents neglect the infant, are inconsistent or insensitive to the infant's needs, the infant is likely to develop a(n) ___ attachment to the parents
a. familiar; strange
b. easy; difficult
c. insecure; secure
d. secure; insecure

d. secure; insecure

Research shows that infants only a few weeks old prefer
a. to look at objects a few meters away
b. hearing their father's language
c. their father's voice to their mother's voice
d. their mother's voice to another woman's voice

d. their mother's voice to another woman's voice

In a classic experiment with preschoolers, Walter Mischel had given children a choice to eat one marshmallow now or two marshmallows when he returned a few minutes later. Mischel was testing ___ in their children
a. cognitive reasoning
b. intuitive reasoning
c. delayed gratification
d. moral reasoning

c. delayed gratification

According to Lawrence Kohlberg, the majority of children younger than age nine have a ___ of self-interest
a. postconventional morality
b. conventional morality
c. preconventional morality
d. pseudomorality

c. preconventional morality

Which of the following is the correct order of prenatal development?
a. embryo, zygote, fetus
b. zygote, embryo, fetus
c. fetus, embryo, zygote
d. zygote, fetus, embryo

b. zygote, embryo, fetus

Abstract logic and the potential for mature reasoning will develop in which stage of cognitive development according to Paget's theory?
a. formal operational
b. sensorimotor
c. concrete operational
d. preoperational

a. formal operational

Gerry began forgetting where she put her purse, how to balance a checkbook, and where she left the car in the parking lot. She is experiencing the signs and symptoms of
a. Alzheimer's disease
b. menopause
c. middle age
d. menarche

a. Alzheimer's disease

Ariana, a 3-month-old baby, is no longer as interested in a stuffed rabbit as she once was. What has happened here?
a. She has an inborn preference for a new stimulus
b. she has become habituated
c. she is able to categorize a variety of stimuli
d. she remembers the original stimulus, making the new stimulus seem different

b. she has become habituated

Maria demands total obedience from her children, When she speaks she expects her children to listen. There is no discussion, no arguing. Maria uses which type of parenting style?
a. authoritative
b. detached
c. authoritarian
d. permissive

c. authoritarian

According to Erik Erikson, the two fundamental themes that dominate adult development are:
a. divorce and remarriage
b. managing investments and planning for retirement
c. finding a mate and having children
d. intimacy and generativity

d. intimacy and generativity

The research study design in which the same people are followed across time to be restudied and retested is called a ___ study
a. cross-vocational
b. cross-sectional
c. longitudinal
d. laditudinal

c. longitudinal

Bianca is 33 years old and unmarried, and she is worried that she will not be married early enough to have children. Bianca is feeling pressure from her culture's established
a. social clock
b. biological clock
c. crystalized clock
d. psychological clock

a. social clock

___ core idea was that our intellectual progression reflects an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences, which is what schemas are designed to do.
a. Kohlberg's
b. Piaget's
c. Erikson's
d. Harlow's

b. Piaget's