American Republic Chapter 4

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1.) What was the colonist's view of social classes? How is this different from how we view social classes today?

The colonists had great concern about social classes. If they saw someone in the upper class, that person was viewed with great respect because they worked hard and made money doing so. The upper class was typically seen with respect, improved the tastes of the lower classes, kept the culture, and were the custodians of it.

2.) In New England, two groups of people included in the upper class (Aristocrats) would be?

Merchants, traders and clergymen

3.) Who formed the core of colonial society? Name some of them.

Middle class people- small farmers, clergymen, shopkeepers, ship captains,carpenters, and blacksmiths

4.) People who could not pay for their own voyage to the colonies and hoped to find a relative or friend to pay the remaining fee after they arrived were called?

Redemptioners

5.) Explain what an indentured servant was.

An indentured servant was a person who would serve their master for 4-7 years to gain passage to America, repay debts, or learn a trade.

6.) Explain the ideal form of family in the colonies.

The family was a patriarchy, meaning the father was head over everyone.

7.) What was the father's role?

The father raised the money, did the work, worked the fields, or were tradesmen with shops connected to the house.

8.) What was the mother's role?

The mother was the godly character, who supported the husband, kept the house, reared children, cooked, fed animals, harvested garden, spin cloth, make clothing, watch children, and worked with husband.

9.) What was the children's role?

The children had to be helpful at home and weren't allowed to remain idle. They pretty much did chores.

10.) Where did most social activities take place?

The colonial home.

11.) What was the earliest colonial home like?

They typically had two rooms on each floor and a central chimney. They might also have a lean-to behind the house and a clapboard siding made of split logs.

12.) Why were log cabins practical on the frontier?

Log cabins were practical on the frontier because on the frontier because they didn't require nails.

13-14.) What were the two earliest forms of schools in New England? What did students learn in these schools?

13.) Grammar schools-*equivalent to our elementary schools*, they learned Greek, Latin, math, and philosophy, but not spelling.
14.) Dame schools- schools taught in the homes of single ladies or widows. They read the principles of Scripture and laws of the country.

15.) Describe what a hornbook was.

A paddle-shaped board that was covered in a printed sheet and a thin-transparent sheet of animal horn. Kids learned to read from this, and it usually had the Lord's Prayer printed on it.

16.) What Act was passed to keep Satan from keeping people "from the Knowledge of the Scriptures"? When was it passed?

"Old Deluder Satan Act", 1647

17.) What did this Act require?

All towns of 50 or more families had to appoint a school-teacher and a school so all kids could learn to read the Scriptures.

18.) What was the first institution of higher learning in the colonies? Where was it located? When was it founded?

Harvard College in Cambridge, MA uring 1636.

19.) What was the purpose of vocational schools?

To teach farm and shop skills.

20-21.) Explain the apprenticeship system with at least two details.

20.) An apprentice would serve for 7 years or until they turned 21.
21.) They learned trades by living with their master of a certain trade or skill, lodging and eating with them while being expected to be moral and serve their master faithfully.

22.) Why were there fewer schools in the Middle and Southern colonies?

Because of the long growing seasons, they couldn't attend school while working the fields with their families.

23.) What was the Halfway Covenant of 1662?

Unbelievers were excluded from the Lord's Supper, but their children could be baptized into the church. The unsaved were also not allowed to take communion.

24.) What was the result of the Halfway Covenant?

Not everyone was truly Christian, and many people, including pastors, needed to be converted. The Puritans lost control of MA when they lost their charter and they never had their truly Christian Church.

25.) What was the official established church in the Southern colonies?

The Anglican church.

26.) Who were the Dunkers?

A German group that landed in Ephrata in PA that didn't believe in marriage, kept Saturday as the Sabbath, and were baptized by triple immersion. Christian Sauer, one of them, printed the first German Bible and newspaper in the colonies.

27.) Who were the Moravians?

A German religious group that followed the teaching of John Huss who were persecuted in Germany and Moravia.

28-29.) What two things were the Moravians known for?

28.) Made the greatest missionary effort to the slaves, Indians, and German settlers.
29.) Influenced American church music.

30.) Which colonial region had a great diversity of religious groups?

The Middle Colonies.

31.) Which religious group was treated as "pagans"

The Jews

32.) When did the Great Awakening begin?

During the 1720's.

33.) What Great Awakening preacher was considered one of the outstanding minds of colonial America?

Jonathan Edwards

34.) What was the name of the above man's famous sermon?

"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

35.) Why did George Whitefield preach in open fields many times?

Because the churches often refused to let him use their pulpit.

36.) Who did Whitefield have a particular burden for?

Children

37-40.) List 4 effects of the Great Awakening.

1.) Great number of converts
2. Increased number of missionary works
3.) Higher education effect
4.) Unexpected results in churches- more churches formed, Baptist churches more common, more unified churches
*Increased distinction between church + state, led more colonists to think about personal and political freedom

41.) Who was the major leader of the Great Awakening in the South?

Samuel Davies

42.) What was the movement of the 1700's that exalted rational thinking and critical reasoning called?

The Enlightenment

43.) What is the belief of Deism?

God created the universe and left it to run with a few natural laws, and He doesn't interact with it much at all.

44-45.) Who were two famous Americans who claimed to be Deists?

Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.
*Ethan Allen*

46.) Who was David Brainerd?

The best-known missionary to the Indians after the revival.

47.) Who was the Moravian minister to the Delaware Indians?

David Zeisburger

48.) What movement denied the doctrine of the Trinity?

Unitarianism

49.) Who wrote the blue-black speller?

Noah Webster

50.) Explain slave families.

Slave family marriages were not recognized by law, and they were only allowed to visit during certain times.

51.) What was pewter?

"Poor man's silver"-an alloy of tin, lead, and copper.

52.) Who were some famous colonial painters and what did they do?

Gilbert Stuart- famous for unfinished portrait of George Washington on $1 bill.
John Singleton Copley- considered greatest colonial painter, Paul Revere

53.) The first silversmith was?

Thomas Howard.

54.) Who created the "bootscraper"?

Joseph Jenkins

55.) What were the 3 popular painting types?

Landscape, portrait, and historical events

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